Capstone Project of the Year


Wi-Fi-Based Trilateration Location System

Project Team

Graeme Pinkoski. I was born in Wainwright, moved to Edmonton upon graduating high school, and enrolled at NAIT after spending seven years working in the golf industry. I was general manager of my hometown golf course when my wife and I had had our first child. We were looking for a change of pace and decided I should go back to school. NAIT’s Computer Engineering Technology Program (CNT) was appealing because I’ve always loved and been interested in all things technology. Upon graduation, I was hired to develop software for Edmonton’s Dynamic Manufacturing Solutions. I spend my leisure time with my wife of seven years, Melanie,  and our two children, three-year-old Lucas our baby, Liliana.

Ryland Horton. I was born in Edmonton and grew up in Sherwood Park. I chose to go to NAIT after working in banking and deciding I'd like to do something more technically oriented. CNT looked like a great fit given that I love the rush of building something that works and also found myself drawn to computer programming. In my spare time, I like to play games and work on personal programming projects.

Project Summary

GPS is ubiquitous outdoors. Locations are tracked down to the metre in the most inhospitable environments. Indoors, however, no system exists to provide the level of location to which people have grown accustomed. It is our contention that Wi-Fi signal strength information may hold the key to locating a device, person, or piece of equipment in a place where GPS cannot penetrate. Using RSS information and a derived distance model, trilateration can pinpoint a location between a set of overlapping Wi-Fi receivers. We successfully built such a system and proved it works in a real-world environment. Despite being limited by relatively weak hardware, we achieved an accuracy level of approximately five metres, which could be improved with further refinement. Additional research and development could turn this technology into many different forms—from builtin location for valuable equipment to pinpointing your own location within a mall.

The genesis of this project came from a problem presented by Graeme’s wife, a nurse at a large local hospital. The porters responsible for moving patients to different wards never know where to find an available stretcher. This results in lengthy delays while they search different units, trying to locate the necessary equipment. In trying to solve this problem, Graeme thought of our upcoming Capstone project. He and Ryland Horton came up with the idea of using Wi-Fi to try to locate a transmitter that would be attached to a stretcher or other piece of medical equipment.

Our project summary includes an explanation of the process we employed to develop the initial concept into a fleshed-out product—the Wi-Fi Location System. Using a system of four base units mapped around a known area (2nd Floor, C Wing of NAIT’s HP Centre), we were able to track a transmitter device to an estimated position accurate to approximately 5 metres. This was accomplished using a signal strength-to-distance conversion combined with readings from each base unit, and an averaged trilateration algorithm. The location was saved in a database until requested through the end-user interface, when it would appear on an overlay of the mapped area.

Read the full report for the Wi-Fi-Based Trilateration Location System.


Inlet Temperature Disturbances in a Shell-Tube Heat Exchanger

Project Team

Logan Schalk. I chose NAIT because of its state-of-the-art labs, small class sizes, great instructors, and short commute from my home in Spruce Grove. More specifically, I was drawn to the Instrumentation Engineering Technology Program when family friends assured me it was one of the institution’s most challenging courses. Some of my favourite classes were PLC Programming and Process Control. I absolutely loved the program from the start and, being a glutton for punishment, I immediate enrolled in NAIT’s Bachelor of Technology in Technology Management degree option. Outside of school, I am an avid outdoorsman who enjoys hunting, fishing, hiking, camping, and skiing. I’m fortunate that my summer job, surveying pipelines, marries my love of technology and my passion for nature— I mean, they pay me to spend four months outdoors in the mountains. Don’t tell them, but I’d ALMOST do it for free… almost…school’s expensive.

Project Summary

My capstone project was unique in that it was a pilot project conducted in Instrumentation Engineering Technology. Only 10 students in my cohort were selected to participate in this initiative. We were chosen based on our respective academic standings in our Introduction to Process Control course.

Through an organization called i@home, I collaborated with students from the Middle Eastern Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. I performed various step changes on my shell-tube heat exchanger in the NAIT labs and would share my findings with my Turkish counterparts. Likewise, they made various step changes to their shell-tube heat exchanger and shared their findings with me. This collaboration provided the basis for my capstone project: Designing a feedforward with feedback-trim model for a shell-tube heat exchanger, specifically for the unit housed in the NAIT Instrumentation labs.

This capstone project was unique in that I was able to learn about the shell-tube heat exchanger and make physical step changes while benefiting from a valuable cultural learning experience. Through the collaborative process, I gained an understanding of their culture and language while sharing some Canadian culture with my colleagues in the Middle East.

I am extremely content with this experience and am pleased with how my final capstone project turned out. The collaboration led to an opportunity to travel to Turkey in May 2017, meet the students I worked with, and see their shell-tube heat exchanger in person

Read the full report for the Inlet Temperature Disturbances in a Shell-Tube Heat Exchanger.


Cabo Verde Electrification through Renewable Energy

Project Team

Patrick Donohue. I was born in Thousand Oaks California and moved to Squamish, British Columbia, when I was 10 years old. After graduating from high school in 2005, I bounced around BC, working various jobs until I landed a gig near Fort McMurray. Two years in the oil patch made me realize the sector was not sustainable and I started looking into renewables, a rapidly-developing field. NAIT’s Alternative Energy Program (ALTE) seemed to offer a lot and I jumped at the chance to move away from fossil fuelbased technologies. I was not disappointed, developing the technical skills needed to enter the industry. Away from work, I love snowboarding for the sense of freedom it offers, as well as competitive sports such as baseball and tennis. I have less free time than I used to, though, as my fiancĂ©e, Desiree, and I recently adopted Luna, a dog who lives for her runs in the dog park.

Jordan Kruhlak. A native Edmontonian, I graduated from the University of Alberta School of Business in 2015. While the knowledge I gained there will always be useful, I wanted to learn about a specific industry, preferably one with global growth opportunity. NAIT’s ALTE Program has provided exactly that. What’s especially gratifying is that our Cape Verde initiative allowed me to apply what I learned at NAIT while leveraging the financial knowledge I gained at the U of A. I am very interested in traveling internationally and domestically, and hope one day to operate my own renewable energy business in Canada and abroad.

Darren Dunfield. I was born and raised in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In 2000, after high school, I moved to Edmonton and started an electrical apprenticeship. I built my knowledge and skills, eventually owning my own small electrical contracting company, which I operated until 2011. I worked various jobs in the oil sands as well as residential and commercial contracts throughout Edmonton. Between 2012 and 2014, I travelled the world extensively, visiting over 40 countries. Witnessing the global development of renewable energy technologies prompted me to build on my electrical background through NAIT’s Alternative Energy Program. My professional interests tend towards utility and microgrid hybrid renewable energy system optimization, energy storage, and project management. My personal interests lie principally in outdoor activities, including hiking, scrambling, camping, disc golf, snowboarding and hockey.

Project Summary

The Cape Verde Electrification through Renewable Energy Capstone Project was a pre-feasibility study for hybridizing multiple renewable energy technologies in an effort to shift the two most populous islands of Cape Verde away from fossil fuel electricity generation and towards 100% renewable electricity generation.

Cape Verde is located 570 km off the coast of North West Africa and is home to over 550,000 people across nine electrically-independent islands. The country enjoys sunshine, on average, for over 360 days per year and much of the time is exposed to strong north-easterly winds. What little rain the country receives is concentrated between August and September, with near zero precipitation throughout the rest of the year. As a result, the fresh water used in Cape Verde comes from reverse-osmosis water desalination, a costly, energy-intensive process. This has led to country-wide shortages of fresh water for through much of the summer.

Since the 1980’s, Cape Verde has exploited its constant windiness to generate power, and in 2011 expanded both solar and wind generation. As of 2015, the country enjoyed up to a 20% renewable energy fraction (REF). Even so, Cape Verde is heavily dependent on imported fossil fuels for electrical power, and saw fuel costs jump by more than 35% between 2015 and 2016 alone, steadily increasing the cost of electricity to over 0.40 CAD/kWh—that is more than 600% higher than in Alberta. These increased fuel costs have forced a shift in imports from diesel to intermediate fuel oils, a much lower grade and higher polluting energy source, raising concerns regarding both energy security and the environment. For these reasons, the government of Cape Verde has encouraged a commitment to expand the REF on each island, moving the country towards 100% renewable energy generation.

Read the full report for the Cabo Verde Electrification through Renewable Energy.


Red Deer College

Automated Lacquer System

Project Team

Vik Manhani. Born in India and raised in Red Deer, I am a recent graduate of RDC’s Electrical Engineering Technology Program. The exponential growth of technology has always excited me, and having a local EET offering seemed like a perfect way to build knowledge in a field that interested me. As project manager of the Automated Lacquer System capstone, I had many important responsibilities, such as: Oversite of the entire initiative; creating balanced workloads for the team members; talking to suppliers for parts and price, and designing the new electrical circuits with the proper equipment. Working on this EVRAZ-sponsored, real-life industrial project gave me significant experience and built my understanding of electrical systems. I acquired valuable skills and techniques that will benefit me throughout my career as an Electrical Engineering Technologist.

Mark Bisconde. Raised in a small happy family on Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, in the Philippines, I am a new graduate of the Red Deer College Mechanical Engineering Technology Program. During my final semester, I was part of a team that completed a capstone project sponsored by EVRAZ, a global entity that concentrates on the production of steel products for oilfield clients. I gained valuable insight into designing systems and coordinating efforts with my colleagues as we collaborated to complete the project. In the short term, I look forward to working as a Mechanical Engineering Technologist and building the knowledge and skills required of an MET professional. A resident of Red Deer since 2011, I enjoy outdoor activities such as photography, hiking, camping, and snowboarding.

Dylan Kutz. Arthur C. Clarke once wrote that, “Any sufficiently advance technology is indistinguishable from magic.” Being the senior programmer of the Automated Lacquer System capstone team, I was able to apply my passion for software construction, successfully developing both the Human Machine Interface and the projects controlling ladder logic. Having graduated from Electrical Engineering Technologies, I have chosen to continue my education, and will return to RDC in 2018 to obtain my Instrumentation Engineering Technology diploma.

Yi Zhang. Being an international student who returns to China every year allowed me to offer a different perspective to the programming team. As a result, I played a major role in developing the Human Machine Interface. Now that I have graduated from the RDC EET Program, I have opted to continue my education in Ontario, where I will work towards becoming an electrical engineer.

Project Summary


EVRAZ’s existing stenciling process begins by moving in the steel pipe on a conveyor system using ten 480V, 1.5hp motors with polyurethane rollers to prevent the pipe’s being scratched. A hydraulic mechanical arm mechanism then descends allowing a metal extension to rest on the surface of the pipe. The purpose of this extension is to maintain a set distance between the stencil applicator and the pipe’s surface to achieve uniform paint spread on each pipe. The pipe is than sensed by a photoelectric sensor and the stencil is then applied using a Mathews Flow-Jet Ink Supply System. The arm travels down the pipe spraying the lacquer, a process that takes approximately 10 to 30 seconds one way. Once the entire stencil has been applied, a brief pause allows the ink sprayer to return to its default position. This ink applier’s power requirements are 115/230VAC, 60/50Hz, 50Watts. It weighs 44.4011 lb and the ink is supplied by a 5-gallon reservoir monitored by a
level sensor. A disadvantage of the ink is that, once applied, it tends to smudge and/or fade. Labels are not, therefore, always legible after transport or storage.

Boxford Lathe Project

Project Team

Braeden Bysterveld-Poirier. I was born in Red Deer and raised in nearby Delburne. Some of my strongest memories growing up are of seeing my father and grandfather building anything from a deck to a garage, and fixing all manner of mechanical contraptions, such as snowmobiles and tractors. Being immersed in this environment I grew up wanting a career where I could work with my hands. As I grew older I added a desire to design products, which led me, naturally, to enrol in RDC’s Mechanical Engineering Technology Program.

Doug Clavier. I have always been interested how things work. This led me to a career as a motorcycle mechanic, where I gained significant experience in engine building, tuning, fabrication, and customer interaction (Important soft skill! Ed.). However, I always wondered what went into designing complex machines, how I could make things lighter, or how strong components really were. After nearly 20 years as a tradesman, I decided to return to school and pursue a diploma in Mechanical Engineering Technology. Our family is established in Central Alberta, so Red Deer College was a natural that ended up offering a strong educational experience bolstered by excellent opportunities to explore and learn on state-of-the-art equipment. I am excited to explore my new career as an engineering technologist, working towards my C.E.T. certification and perhaps a P. Tech.

Vincent Nepomuceno. I was born and raised in the Philippines. In 2007, my Dad immigrated to Canada. Two years later, the rest of the family followed him, settling in Ponoka, where we have lived ever since. I’m proud to say that in 2016, our entire family became Canadian citizens. After completing high school, I enrolled in NAIT’s distance- learning Power Engineering Program, obtaining my 4th class ticket. I then decided to continue my education and joined RDC’s Mechanical Engineering Technology Program. Red Deer College seemed like a good fit for several reasons, including that it is close to home and offered the resources that would help me learn and gain the relevant experience desired by industry. I chose MET over other offerings in part to satisfy my interest in mechanical systems, and in part because I wanted to learn engineering design. My goals are to pursue a career as a Mechanical Engineering Technologist and work towards the C.E.T. certification.

Ryley Schmitt. I was born and raised in Olds and, at fourteen, started spending summers working for my father’s importing and exporting hay company. As a result, I learned a lot about tractors and farming, and discovered that I love working with my hands. I decided to go into RDC’s MET Program because I felt the diploma would help me leverage my existing mechanical experience and skills and allow me to find an interesting job. Specifically, I was hoping to work with my hands while also doing engineering design. I am currently working towards my C.E.T. designation.

Project Summary


The Boxford lathe product line was manufactured in England from 1950’s through the 1980’s. The VSL was a popular lathe for educational institutions as it was robust for its size and quite a capable little machine. It is for these reasons that many were imported into Canada and the USA.

For our project, we were required to address the deficiencies of a mechanically and electrically defective lathe, which, as manufactured, uses a mechanical variable speed system similar to those found in some cars (CVT or constant variable transmission) to vary spindle speed. The system depends on many wearing components that are either no longer available, prohibitively expensive, or quite complex to fabricate. This is what led us to replace the mechanical variable speed mechanism with a modern electrical alternative using a variable frequency drive.

This new drive system required several additional upgrades. We had to design and fabricate a new motor mount and belt-tensioning system, create a new electrical enclosure and control panel, and construct and install a new spindle speed display. We also designed and fabricated many components to repair existing damage to the lathe or to improve its operation.


The Boxford Lathe Project (BLP) team chose this capstone because it offered the opportunity to develop our skills significantly, requiring us to employ the project management, critical thinking, problem solving, design, and fabrication learnings we gained over the course of our two years in the RDC MET Program. As students, we wanted to gain as much real-life practical experience as possible to bolster what was being taught in the classroom.

The BLP team not only designed, fabricated, and installed many mechanical components, we specified and installed the project’s electrical elements. This exposed us to “the process” which is directly applicable to situations one could encounter in a manufacturing environment, further building on, and strengthening, our educational experience. We focused on creating professional project documents, delivering quality work, and adhering to a predetermined “the process.”

Read the full report for the Boxford Lathe Project.



River Valley School

Project Team

David Erickson. I am a 21-year-old Calgarian, born and raised. During my first semester of Grade 12, I started working for a light-gauge steel-framing and -finishing company. Upon graduation, I took a year off to continue working as a steel framer while I decided what post-secondary route I wanted to pursue. I was working on a hotel project in downtown Calgary where I met an architect from a local firm. She showed me around the office and introduced me to some of her colleagues in different departments (contract administration, interior design, etc.). During the tour, someone suggested I consider SAIT’s Architectural Technologies Program at SAIT. I explored the option and am glad I did, as my time here represents two of the most successful years of my life.

Project Summary

River Valley School (RVS) was an individual project I completed during my 4th semester in the Architectural Technologies Program at SAIT.

RVS is a non-profit Montessori/Progressive/Aerosmith stream school located in the Calgary community of Bowness. It currently owns two campuses: River Valley School (grades 1-6) and the Early Learning Campus (ELC), which focuses on pre-school and kindergarten.

River Valley School is located in an old Royal Canadian Legion building off Bowwood Dr NW, immediately after one crosses the Bow River. The ELC building is two blocks North of RVS on a 9.5-acre field between 31st Ave NW and 33rd Ave NW.

My project objective was to design a new structure to house the students and staff of River Valley School. This new structure is to be located on the site housing the ELC building.

To gain an appreciation of what makes River Valley School such a terrific learning environment, I met with the institution’s headmaster, as well as with an architect who represented RVS. I toured the existing campus to get a first-hand feel of what it was like to be a part of the student body and faculty. From there I was given a list of criteria desired of the new design. These included, without being limited to:

  • Leaving four acres of green space;
  • Designing to achieve good traffic flow (40 parking stalls);
  • A total surface area of approximately 40,000 ft²;
  • A maximum of two storeys with an elevator;
  • Each floor was to include:
    • One set of male washrooms
    • One set of female washroom
    • One unisex washroom
    • Two adult washrooms;
  • 16 classrooms with plenty of natural lighting;
  • Separate spaces dedicated to art, drama, music, a library, French-language instruction, and a gymnasium; and,
  • Administrative offices.


Prototype Design for an Airlock System on Mars

Project Team

Quang (Henry) Nguyen. SAIT provided me with an environment that best suited my learning process. Its small classes allowed me to build strong relationships with my colleagues and instructors, which in turn helped with my studies. Another aspect that SAIT offered was the knowledge of real-life experience. This gave me a wider understanding and perspective of what industry would be like should I one day work as a technologist.

I moved to Calgary from my native Vietnam when I was a year old, and have lived here most of my life. When I was growing up, technology was booming, feeding an innate interest in computer hardware and software that became a passion as I was introduced to a diverse range of technologies.

I enjoy going out, traveling and exposing myself to new experiences, since they can only help me grow as an individual. At home I tend to spend a lot of time on my computer, either playing video games and or talking to my friends.

Christopher Duff. After thirteen years of working as a cook and labourer out of high school, I decided to take the necessary steps to begin a new career. I chose SAIT Polytechnic because of its stellar reputation and wide array of courses. I had studied drafting in high school and loved it, leading naturally to my opting for the Engineering Design & Drafting Technology Program. My hobbies include camping, cooking, travel, archery, blade-smithing, and hiking with my dog.

Andrew Liu. I emigrated to Canada from China when I was 10, and hold a Bachelor’s Degree of Arts and Design from the University of Alberta. One of the reasons I chose SAIT’s EDDT Program is the way the faculty designs its courses based on industry requirements and input. It provided me a better understanding of the process of taking a design from concept to its final, physical form. Whenever I am not busy with school, I enjoy doing graphic and product design, such as logos, furniture, or footwear. I also like to participate in various activities such as basketball, running, and kayaking, and I am considering taking up photography.

Darrel Turnbull. Growing up I always had a passion for learning about what makes things tick. After having taken apart and reassembled everything I could get my hands on, I began to wonder how I could start making things myself. Eventually I found my way to the SAIT EDDT Program, which gave me the tools and confidence to begin bringing my ideas to life. Now, with a solid foundation in developing industry-standard drawing sets and recreating those same designs in 3D, I am excited to see where I could go next! When I need a break from my computer screen, I can usually be found either fishing the Bow River or taking my bike out the mountains to get away from the city—and I hope one day to indulge both these hobbies using equipment I designed myself!

Project Summary

Our project objective was to design a prototype airlock system to be used in extreme environments such as Mars. Our requirements included that the airlock be strong and durable, lightweight and able to expand and collapse for shipping and assembly. To save on space, the unit would be shipped in its compact form and expanded to full length during assembly, then attached to a pre-existing structure. To save weight while retaining strength and structural integrity, for rigid body parts, we chose lightweight materials, such as (2014-T6) Aluminum and Vectra Liquid Crystal Polymer. For the collapsible sections, we opted for a weave of Kevlar to allow for the required movement and compaction of the unit. These materials were simulated and designed to meet the safety factors as required by NASA.


Baja Panels

Project Team

Trevor Wall. I was born in Ontario, where, as kids, my brother and I liked to create LEGO versions of the machines we had seen on the TV show Junkyard Wars, competing to see who’s was better. I was also fascinated with mechanical systems, when I was eight, I made a functioning hand out of cardboard, string, and straws. To this day, I still enjoy working on such projects always have something on the go. For example, right now I am designing and building an arcade cabinet.

I chose SAIT as it seemed to offer the best career options given my financial constraints at the time. It turned out to be a perfect choice, providing experience with manufacturing as well as engineering, two sides of the coin I wanted. The program has allowed me to acquire hands-on skills in a range of areas, affording me the opportunity to develop a range of skills, including allowing me actually to create what I designed. My plans now are to become a C.E.T. through ASET, to continue to further my career and my knowledge, and possibly to pursue a mechanical engineering degree.

Nathan Burnette. From a young age I enjoyed taking apart my toys to see what made them work, and as I grew older, I started wrenching on my vehicles, gaining a love for machines and all things that move. I always wanted to get my hands dirty and dig into any project, which led to my spending years working in the oil and gas industry as a wireline operator. SAIT’s MET Program was appealing because it blends hands-on experience with theoretical learning. While completing my diploma at SAIT I discovered a new passion for higher education and applied to Lakehead University’s bridging program to complete engineering degree.

Vars Bacler. I have had a hand in engineering one way or another since I was about five-years-old growing up in Winnipeg. From dismantling my dad’s VCR to building and flying remote-control airplanes, to restoring and modifying muscle cars, I have always had a passion for drawing and aesthetic design. I feel that I am now prepared to apply those interests to a professional field. There is no better feeling than seeing something that started as a rough pencil sketch evolve into a tangible solution. I chose SAIT to take advantage of its hands-on approach to teaching. All the hard work has paid off and the MET Program has provided me a gateway into a career in mechanical engineering.

James Hatch. I am from Vancouver and was willing to relocate for my education, choosing SAIT because the folks there were really good about keeping me current on my application status, notifying me of anything I was missing. They seemed just as excited to welcome me to the school as I was to attend. This made a bid difference because, as a mature student, I was nervous about re-entering school after such a long hiatus. I love to build things and work on my car, and have always been interested in customizing and performance parts. I chose the MET Program specifically because it tied in with my passions, which seemed to offer a more secure future for my children and me.

Brodie Kanwal. Originally from Calgary, I now live in Okotoks and chose SAIT over other schools because, in addition to being accessible from home, it offered the opportunity learn and gain skills quickly through hands-on training. I enjoyed the challenge of completing assignments whose problems required solutions based on creative thinking. My hobbies include motocross, hiking, snowboarding, and pretty much anything outdoors. I also like to watch and learn about mechanical things such as how a jet turbine works or how to repair a dirt bike. Then I try to apply that knowledge to make or repair something of my own design, all of which ties in to why I wanted to study mechanical engineering technology.

Project Summary

The goal of our capstone project was simply to create body panels for SAIT’s Baja Buggy. Though this is simple in theory, the body panels must adhere to the criteria and constraints set by the SAE Baja Regulations.

Previous years’ body panels were made from hand-cut aluminum sheets. Though this was sufficient for competition, our team felt that it did not represent that calibre of design and engineering that typifies SAIT students. We wanted to create body panels that were innovative and aesthetic such that we, and everyone at SAIT, could be proud of the final product.

From the outset, creating highly sustainable body panels was a priority. To achieve this goal, we extensively researched several materials, comparing their relative GWP, LCA, and mechanical properties. We eventually opted for a composite called BioMid, whose co-inventor agreed to co-sponsor our capstone project, supplying materials, research, and expertise.

Instead of just designing the body panels and having them fabricated by a third party, we decided to do all of the fabricating ourselves. This allowed the entire team to gain hands-on skills with designing and fabrication. Through this process, and its many failures, we learned first-hand about the various materials’ design constraints. This experience allowed us to land on a final design that employs a textbook example of DFMA. We created one symmetrical panel design that can be used on either the left or right side of the buggy simply by cutting it to fit accordingly.

In order to complete our project to the calibre we set ourselves, we first applied for, and received, Innovative Student Project Funding (ISPF) from SAIT’s Applied Research and Innovation Services (ARIS).

We started by playing around with composite materials to practice the process of manufacturing composite parts. After successfully making small objects out of composite materials, such as a carbon-Kevlar bowl that is currently being used to hold keys, we looked at different ways to manufacture the plug.

Our first attempt at creating a plug failed spectacularly. The prototype’s CAD model was digitally cut into segments and printed at 1:1 scale. These plans were glued to foam core that was then cut and assembled into a grid that slotted together and was filled with expanding foam whose unpredictability resulted in an unusable product.

The failure of the first prototype taught us what to avoid as well as what worked. The process for the second prototype was similar to that of the first. Instead of using foam board we cut the plans onto ¾” MDF, and instead of using a grid, we stacked the pieces. The stacked sections were glued and coated with body filler that was sanded to a near-mirror finish. Fibreglass was then hand laid to create a prototype panel. This process yielded a much better result than the first prototype, but was too time-consuming. The design was also too sharp in some areas, resulting in delamination of the composite, a factor we considered in our last prototype.

The final design was vertically symmetrical, which allowed a single part to be cut into either a left- or right-side panel. This design choice was a result of several factors including saving cost and time by not having to create multiple molds. The same process was used to manufacture the plug, but using ¼” MDF. The final BioMid panels were laid and vacuum-bagged on this plug.